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Current Research on Bean Pod Mottle Virus

Research Overview: This problem has become more frequent in recent years in some states. Both soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) have previously been reported to cause mottling of seed. In this laboratory, experiments are being conducted to determine the likely causes of the seed mottling seen in recent years. In these experiments, plants are artificially inoculated with SMV, BPMV, and both viruses to determine effects on seed mottling.


Host-Pathogen Interaction

Hobbs, H. A., Hartman, G. L., Wang, Y., Hill, C. B., Bernard, R. L., Pedersen, W. L.., and Domier, L. L. 2003. Occurrence of seed coat mottling in soybean plants inoculated with Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus. Plant Dis. 87:1333-1336. [download] [view abstract]
Soybean seed coat mottling often has been a problematic symptom for soybean growers and the soybean industry. The percentages of seed in eight soybean lines with seed coat mottling were evaluated at harvest after inoculating plants during the growing season with Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and both viruses inside an insect-proof cage in the field. Results from experiments conducted over 2 years indicated that plants infected with BPMV and SMV, alone or in combination, produced seed coat mottling, whereas noninoculated plants produced little or no mottled seed. BPMV and SMV inoculated on the same plants did not always result in higher percentages of mottled seed compared with BPMV or SMV alone. There was significant virus, line, and virus-line interaction for seed coat mottling. The non-seed-coat-mottling gene (Im) in Williams isoline L77-5632 provided limited, if any, protection against mottling caused by SMV and none against BPMV. The Peanut mottle virus resistance gene Rpvl in Williams isoline L85-2308 did not give any protection against mottling caused by SMV, whereas the SMV resistance gene Rsvl in Williams isoline L78-379 and the resistance gene or genes in the small-seeded line L97-946 gave high levels of protection against mottling caused by SMV. The correlations (r = 0.77 for year 2000 and r = 0.89 for year 2001) between virus infection of the parent plant and seed coat mottling were significant (P = 0.01), indicating that virus infection of plants caused seed coat mottling.

Epidemiology and Management

Mabry, T. R., Hobbs, H. A., Steinlage, T. A., Johnson, B. B., Pedersen, W. L., Spencer, J. L., Levine, E., Isard, S. A., Domier, L. L., and Hartman, G. L. 2003. Distribution of leaf feeding beetles and Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in Illinois and transmission of BPMV in soybeans. Plant Dis. 87:1221-1225. [download] [view abstract]
Bean leaf beetles (BLB; Cerotoma trifurcata) were collected in soybean (Glycine max) fields in 58 and 99 Illinois counties surveyed during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons, respectively. In 2000 BLB counts were highest in the central portion of the state BLB counts were lower the following year, but were more uniformly distributed throughout the state. BLB tested positive forr Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in 37 of 41 counties assayed in 2000. In 2001, BLB tested positive for BPMV in 86 of 99 counties sampled. In 2000 and 2001, western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) adults were abundant in soybean fields only in east central Illinois. WCR adults tested positive for BPMV in 21 of 21 east central Illinois counties in 2000 and 20 of 24 sampled in 2001. BPMV was detected in soybean plants in 38 of 46 counties sampled in 2000. Field-collected WCR adults transmitted BPMV to potted soybean plants at low rates either directly from BPMV-infected soybean fields or with prior feeding on BPMV-infected plants. This is the first report of the distribution of BLB, WCR adults, and BPMV in Illinois and of BPMV transmission by adult WCR.