Chang, H.-X., Brown, P., Lipka, A., Domier, L. L., and Hartman, G. L. 2016. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction identifies associated loci and predicts the sensitivity of Tobacco ringspot virus
in soybean plant introductions. BMC Genomics 17:153:DOI 10.1186/s12864-12016-12487-12867.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a useful tool for detecting and characterizing traits of interest including those associated with disease resistance in soybean. The availability of 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip; www.soybase.org
) on 19,652 soybean and wild soybean plant introductions (PIs) in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection allows for fast and robust identification of loci associated with a desired phenotype. By using a genome-wide marker set to predict phenotypic values, genomic prediction for phenotype-unknown but genotype-determined PIs has become possible. The goal of this study was to describe the genetic architecture associated with sensitivity to Tobacco ringspot virus
(TRSV) infection in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection.
TRSV-induced disease sensitivities of the 697 soybean PIs were rated on a one to five scale with plants rated as one exhibiting mild symptoms and plants rated as five displaying terminal bud necrosis (i.e., bud blight). The GWAS identified a single locus on soybean chromosome 2 strongly associated with TRSV sensitivity. Cross-validation showed a correlation of 0.55 (P < 0.01) to TRSV sensitivity without including the most significant SNP marker from the GWAS as a covariate, which was a better estimation compared to the mean separation by using significant SNPs. The genomic estimated breeding values for the remaining 18,955 unscreened soybean PIs in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection were obtained using the GAPIT R package. To evaluate the prediction accuracy, an additional 55 soybean accessions were evaluated for sensitivity to TRSV, which resulted in a correlation of 0.67 (P < 0.01) between actual and predicted severities.
A single locus responsible for TRSV sensitivity in soybean was identified on chromosome 2. Two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase genes were located near the locus and may control sensitivity of soybean to TRSV infection. Furthermore, a comprehensive genomic prediction for TRSV sensitivity for all accessions in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection was completed.
Lee, J. M., Hartman, G. L., Domier, L. L., and Bent, A. F. 1996. Identification and map location of TTR1, a single locus in Arabidopsis thaliana
that confers tolerance to Tobacco ringspot nepovirus
. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 9:729-735.
The interaction between Arabidopsis and the nepovirus Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) was characterized. Of 97 Arabidopsis lines tested, all were susceptible when inoculated with TRSV grape strain. Even though there was systemic spread of the virus, there was a large degree of variation in symptoms as the most sensitive lines died 10 days after inoculation, while the most tolerant lines either were symptomless or developed only mild symptoms. Four lines were selected for further study based on their differential reactions to TRSV. Infected plants of line Col-0 and Col-0 gl1 flowered and produced seeds like noninfected plants, while those of lines Estland and 1155 died before producing seeds, Symptoms appeared on sensitive plants approximately 5 to 6 days after inoculation. Serological studies indicated that in mechanically inoculated seedlings, the virus, as measured by coat protein accumulation, developed at essentially the same rates and to the same levels in each of the four lines, demonstrating that differences in symptom development were not due to a suppression of virus accumulation, Two additional TRSV strains gave similar results when inoculated on the four lines. Genetic studies with these four Arabidopsis lines revealed segregation of a single incompletely dominant locus controlling tolerance to TRSV grape strain, We have designated this locus TTR1. By using SSLP and CAPS markers, TTR1 was mapped to chromosome V near the nga129 marker, Seed transmission frequency of TRSV for Col-0 and Col-0 gl1 was over 95% and their progeny from crosses all had seed transmission frequencies of over 83%, which made it possible to evaluate the segregation of TTRI in F-2 progeny from infected F-1 plants without inoculating F-2 plants, Seed transmission of TRSV will be further exploited to streamline selection of individuals for fine mapping the TTRI gene. The identification of tolerant and sensitive interactions between TRSV and A. thaliana lines provides a model system for genetic and molecular analysis of plant tolerance to virus infection.